BJRCCD-한중사막화방지생명공학공동연구센터



 
작성일 : 11-09-14 13:41
2nd Korea-China Joint Symposium on Combating Desertification Using Biotechnology
 글쓴이 : 최고관리자
조회 : 5,109  

■ Date: October 26, 2010 
■ Place: Main Hall, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology (KRIBB)
■ Organized by: Environmental Biotechnology Research Center, KRIBB
■ Supported by: MEST, BioGreen21 Program / RDA

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 Program

■ Date : October 26, 2010 (Tue) 13:00 ~ 17:00
■ Place : Main Hall, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology (KRIBB)

13:00 - 13:30 Registration

❚Session I❚ Chaired by LEE Sang-Yeol (Gyeongsang National Univ.)
13:30 ~ 14:00 KWAK Sang-Soo (KRIBB)
          : Strategy for agroforestry biotechnology to combat desertification
14:00 ~ 14:30 DENG Xi-Ping (ISWC)
         : Dryland agricultural experiences and perspectives in the Loess Plateau of China
14:30 ~ 15:00 ZHANG Sui-Qi (ISWC)
         : Growth and function of root and crop water use efficiency

15:00~15:30 Coffee break

❚Session II❚ Chaired by KIM Hae-Young (Kyunghee Univ.)
15:30 ~ 16:00 NOH Eun-Woon (Korea Forest Research Institute)
         : Poplar genetic engineering for biomass and stress tolerance in Korea
16:00 ~ 16:30 LEE Byung-Hyun (Gyeongsang National Univ.)
         : Application of transgenesis and proteomics in improving forage crop
16:30 ~ 17:00 LEE Haeng-Soon (KRIBB)
         : Development of environmentally friendly sweetpotato and potato for combating desertification

18:00~20:00 Reception
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Opening address
                                        
Dear all participants !
   It is my great honor and pleasure to meet all of you at the 2nd Korea-China Joint Symposium on Combating Desertification using Biotechnology. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to our Chinese guests, Prof. Deng Xiping and Prof. Zhang Suiqi from the Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Korean speakers and all participants who spare their valuable time to join this symposium.
   Now climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the earth. Growing desertification by human activities is causing environmental disruption and rural impoverishment and it also have a significant influences on the adjacent countries. Korea suffers from the dust and sandstorms from China and Mongolia regardless of the seasons. Thus, it is urgently needed to establish cooperation between Korea and China to tackle desertification. In this respect, recently, the Korea-China Biotechnology Joint Center to Combat Desertification was established on the basis of MOU on science and technology cooperation in the field of combating desertification between two countries at the Korea-China summit meeting held on August 25, 2008.
   Recently, United Nations launched “UN decade for deserts and the fight against desertification (2010~2020)" to raise awareness and prompt action that will protect the world's drylands from further deterioration and degradation (http://unddd.unccd.int). The causes of desertification majorly come from human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, the improper management of soil and water by the local poor peoples at the desertification areas. In this respect, today's symposium focuses on agroforestry biotechnology to combat desertification for increase the local people's income.
   I hope this symposium will serve as a catalyst to further consolidate cooperation between Korea and China as well as significantly contribute towards our collaborative efforts through the sharing of mutual interests and informations in combating desertification. Once again, I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of participants including speakers.

Sang-Soo Kwak, Ph.D.
Principal Researcher, Environmental Biotechnology Research Center
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB)    
Director, Korea-China Biotechnology Joint Center to Combat Desertification, MEST
2010 KRIBB Conference: Combating Desertification Using Biotechnology (October 26, 2010, KRIBB)


Strategy for agroforestry biotechnology to combat desertification
 
Jae Cheol Jeong1, Haeng-Soon Lee1, Eun-Woon Noh2, Daifu Ma3, Bing-Cheng Xu4, Xi-Ping Deng4, Sang-Soo Kwak1,* (*e-mail: sskwak@kribb.re.kr)

1Environmental Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806, Korea; 2Biotechnology Division, Korea Forest Research Institute, Omokchundong, Suwon 441-350, Korea; 3Sweetpotato Research Institute, Chin㑥㄀ⴀ㌀Academy of Agr桩渀漀ltural Sciences (CAAS), Xuzhou 221121, China; 4Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
 
Who will support the world population of more than 9 billion people in 2050? The dramatic increase in population accompanied by rapid industrialization in developing countries has caused imbalances in the supply of food and energy. Desertification is one of the most serious global problems. The causes of desertification majorly come from human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, the improper management of soil and water by the local poor peoples at the desertification areas. To cope with these global crises over food and energy supplies as well as environmental problems, it is urgently required to develop new environmentally friendly industrial plants to be grown on marginal lands including desertification areas for sustainable development. In this respect, the agroforestry  biotechnology will be important to combat desertification to increase the income for local farmers. In the presentation, the results and prospects of our studies on several industrial transgenic plants such as sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and poplar (Populus alba x P. tremula var. grandulosa) with enhanced tolerance to multiple environmental stresses will be introduced. In addition, the progress of Korea-China Biotechnology Collaboration Research Center to Combat Desertification, which was established on the basis of S&T cooperation in the field of combating desertification during the Seoul summit meeting between two countries (August 2008) will be introduced for the future collaboration.

2010 KRIBB Conference: Combating Desertification Using Biotechnology (October 26, 2010, KRIBB)


Dry land agricultural experiences and perspectives in the
Loess Plateau of China

Xi-Ping Deng*, Bing-Cheng Xu, Sui-Qi Zhang, Lun Shan

State Key Lab. Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil & Water Conservation, CAS & Norwest A & F University. Xinong Road 26, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China (*e-mail: dengxp@ms.iswc.ac.cn)

The Loess Plateau is a plateau that covers an area of some 640,000 km² in the upper and middle of China's Yellow River and China proper. Loess is the name for the silty sediment that has been deposited by wind storms on the plateau over the ages. Loess is a highly erosion-prone soil that is susceptible to the forces of wind and water. The Loess Plateau was highly fertile and easy to farm in ancient times, which contributed to the development of early Chinese civilization around the Loess Plateau. Centuries of deforestation and over-grazing, exacerbated by China's population increase, have resulted in degenerated ecosystems, desertification, and poor local economies. Recent years, Chinese government has paid great attention to mitigate desertification; limited success has resulted for a portion of the Loess Plateau, where now trees and grass have turned green and farmers are busy in their croplands. Many trees were planted and nature is now reclaiming a portion of the Loess Plateau. Results have reduced the massive silt loads to the Yellow River. For the food security, we believe that Extending and adopting valuable techniques such as terracing, mulching, fertilization, supplemental irrigation, drought-tolerant varieties and cash crops to dryland agricultural practices in the Loess Plateau, to improve crop productivity and poverty alleviation is possible.
2010 KRIBB Conference: Combating Desertification Using Biotechnology (October 26, 2010, KRIBB)


Growth and function of root and crop water use efficiency

 Sui-Qi Zhang*, Lun Shan, Xi-Ping Deng, Bing-Cheng Xu

State Key Lab. Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil & Water Conservation, CAS & Norwest A & F University. Xinong Road 26, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China (*e-mail: sqzhang@ms.iswc.ac.cn)

Water availability is a major determinate of crop productivity in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, thus the high use efficiently of water should be center of the crop production in this regions. A higher WUE at equal water uptake is a desirable trait for crop because, both in rain-fed and in irrigated crops, more biomass or yield will be produced with the available water. The present potted、soil column and solution culture experiments were designed to investigate the effects of crop root behavior (size, profile distribution, function et al) on crop water use efficiency using various wheat and corn genotypes under various water conditions. The major results showed that larger Root growth is an important mechanism to resist drought of crop, but its importance for living of crop may be larger than that to productivity and WUE. Therefore, it is important measure rising WUE by reducing root growth, improving root function (water uptake ability) and changing profile distribution of root system. The WUE of corn are raised markedly by application of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient resulted from the change of root system behavior under drought conditions, but their mechanism and effect are different.
2010 KRIBB Conference: Combating Desertification Using Biotechnology (October 26, 2010, KRIBB)


Poplar genetic engineering for biomass and stress tolerance in Korea
 
EW Noh*, YI Choi, JS Lee, MS Han, HS Lee, EK Bae
 
Forest Biotechnology Division, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon, Republic of Korea 441-847 (*e-mail: ewnoh@forest.go.kr)
 
Poplars constitute a major group of woody plants that are amenable to intensive cultivation for fiber and biomass. In addition, they are now considered as the trees for rehabilitation of degraded lands and combating desertification. For the past 20 years, we have established a poplar genetic engineering system that includes gene cloning via cDNA library selection, DNA microarray, genetic transformation, nursery system as well as a field test plot. To control transgene escape, we have selected a natural non-flowering mutant clone and developed several artificial triploid clones. A number of transgenic poplar clones have been generated and tested for either biomass production or stress tolerance. So far only a limited number of transgenic clones display promising results under intensive cultivation conditions. expression of the genes known to confer stress tolerance led to good height growth during dry period (May to June). However, the dominance in height growth gradually disappeared after rainy season (late July) and the stem diameter growth started, resulting in more biomass. Our results so far suggest that overall transgenic clones tend to show poorer biomass production under intensive cultivation system than nontransgenic control possibly due to the cost of constitutive expression of transgenes suggesting that inducible promoters may be needed for long term growth performance. As for tolerance to stresses, transgenic clones could be best identified under drought stress, suggesting their feasibility in combating desertification or planting in spoiled lands. At present, we are expanding our work by establishing a nation-wide research network with several labs that could provide us with functional genes to generate superior transgenic poplars.
2010 KRIBB Conference: Combating Desertification Using Biotechnology (October 26, 2010, KRIBB)


Application of transgenesis and proteomics in improving forage crop
 
Kyung-Hee Kim1, Iftekhar Alam1, Shamima Akhtar Sharmin1, Yong-Goo Kim1, Sang-Hoon Lee2, Ki-Won Lee2, Sang-Soo Kwak3, Byung-Hyun Lee1,*
 
1Department of Animal Bioscience, Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 program), IALS, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea; 2Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Korea; 3Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333, Korea (*e-mail: hyun@gnu.ac.kr)
 
With the prominent changes of global climate, development of improved forage crop is essential for the predicted environmental stress. In order to develop stress tolerant crop, we generated transgenic tall fescue plants expressing AtNDPK2, 2-Cys Prx, OsHSP26 and CodA genes under the control of CaMV 35S or stress inducible SWPA2 promoter. Our result shows that transgenic plants are enhanced tolerance to several abiotic stresses such as methyl viologen, hydrogen peroxide, NaCl or heavy metals. These results suggest that multiple induction of detoxifying enzymes, chaperon activity, increased antioxidant and compatible solute level can increase tolerance against most common environmental stresses.  Proteomics, the systematic analysis of (differentially) expressed proteins, is a tool for the identification of proteins involved in cellular processes which also provide useful target for genetic engineering. Proteomics is advantageous over genomics for the most forage crop which are poorly represented in the nucleotide databases. By studying global patterns of protein content and activity and how they do change during development or in response to stresses, proteomics research is poised to boost our understanding of systems-level cellular behavior. Plant genetic engineering also hopes to benefit from proteomics by the identification of new protein product that confers stress tolerance. In our current study, we have been conducting several screening under various abiotic stresses to find out possible target for stress tolerance.
2010 KRIBB Conference: Combating Desertification Using Biotechnology (October 26, 2010, KRIBB)


Development of environmentally friendly sweetpotato and potato for combating desertification
 
Haeng-Soon Lee*, Jae Cheol Jeong, Yun-Hee Kim, Sun Ha Kim, Sang-Soo Kwak

Environmental Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806, Korea
(*e-mail: hslee@kribb.re.kr)
 
The dramatic increase in population accompanied by rapid industrialization in developing countries has caused imbalances in the supply of food and energy. To cope with these global crises over food and energy supplies as well as environmental problems, it is urgently required to develop the new crop varieties to be grown on marginal lands including desertification areas for sustainable agriculture. Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] and potato (Solanum tuberosom L.) are important upland crops as food, feed, and industrial materials grown worldwide. Specially, because of its high production yield of biomass, sweetpotato is an attractive crop as a target of molecular farming. In addition, it does not require large amounts of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals for growing. At a recent sweetpotato has been recognized as an alternative bio-energy crop with high potential of alcohol production. In this respect, the sweetpotato will be an attractive crop for solving the world food and environmental problems. For this purpose, we are developing industrial transgenic upland crops such as sweetpotato and potato with enhanced tolerance to multiple environmental stresses. In the presentation, our recent studies on 1) metabolic engineering of low molecular weight antioxidants, β-carotene and anthocyanin, in sweetpotato, 2) development of sweetpotato intragenic vector system for the eco-friendly GMO crops, 3) selection of the local cultivars of sweetpotato in desertification area in collaboration with Institute of Sweetpotato Research, CAAS are introduced. In addition, development and characterization of transgenic potato expressing CodA gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter will be introduced in terms of environmental stress in detail.